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yes, it is still increasing.Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2015/02/switch-foundation.html xxxxx ICND1 And ICND2 Break Down
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2011/07/switch-foundation_21.html xxxxx Switch foundation
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2010/02/why-minimum-ethernet-packet-size-is-64_52.html xxxxx why the minimum ethernet packet size is 64 bytes
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2010/01/answer-for-dnd2_7.html xxxxx Answer for DnD2
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/11/wan-trouble-shooting-commands_12.html xxxxx WAN trouble-shooting commands
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/11/public-switched-telephone-network-pstn_12.html xxxxx public switched telephone network (PSTN)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/11/what-is-wan_12.html xxxxx What is WAN
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/switchrouter-interfaces-and-physical_58.html xxxxx Switch/Router Interfaces and Physical Ports
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/basic-router-management-commands_96.html xxxxx Basic Router Management Commands
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/wlan-security.html xxxxx WLAN Security
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/enable-password-vs-enable-secret_14.html xxxxx enable password vs enable secret
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/cisco-ios-software-overview_99.html xxxxx Cisco IOS software overview
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/host-to-host-communication_99.html xxxxx Host-to-Host communication
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/host-to-host-communication-through_10.html xxxxx Host-to-Host communication through a Switch
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/ethernet-lan-segments_9.html xxxxx Ethernet LAN Segments
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/ethernet-frame_22.html xxxxx Ethernet Frame
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/what-is-lan_32.html xxxxx What is a LAN ?
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/tcpip-applications_92.html xxxxx TCP/IP Applications
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/udp-header_5.html xxxxx UDP Header
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/tcp-header_5.html xxxxx TCP Header
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/ip-and-icmp-protocols_16.html xxxxx IP and ICMP protocols
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/cidr-network-address_17.html xxxxx CIDR network address
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/private-ip-address-ranges_97.html xxxxx Private IP address ranges
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/10/ip-addressing_20.html xxxxx IP addressing
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/the-need-for-network-security_86.html xxxxx The need for network security
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/classes-of-attack_25.html xxxxx Classes of Attack
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/ccent-final-practice-exam-4-22-question_23.html xxxxx CCENT Final Practice Exam 4 — 22 Question Set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/ccent-final-exam-practice-1-50-question_97.html xxxxx CCENT Final Exam Practice 1 — 50 Question Set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/ccent-final-exam-practice-2-50-question_41.html xxxxx CCENT Final Exam Practice 2 — 50 Question Set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/ccna-practice-exam-1-50-question-set_19.html xxxxx CCNA Practice Exam 1– 50 Question Set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/configuring-cisco-asapix-7x-for-ssh_2.html xxxxx Configuring Cisco ASA/PIX 7.x for SSH
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/09/routing-process-continued-behind-ping_41.html xxxxx Routing Process Continued — Behind the PING
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/5-4-3-rule.html xxxxx 5-4-3 rule
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-11-exam_59.html xxxxx Module 11 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/exam-14-15-question-set_14.html xxxxx Exam 14 — 15 Question Set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-10-exam_54.html xxxxx Module 10 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/exam-12-20-question-set.html xxxxx Exam 12 — 20 Question Set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-9-exam_6.html xxxxx Module 9 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-8-exam_8.html xxxxx Module 8 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-7-exam_18.html xxxxx Module 7 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-6-exam_74.html xxxxx Module 6 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-5-exam_21.html xxxxx Module 5 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/ccent-module-4-exam_20.html xxxxx CCENT Module 4 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-3-exam_38.html xxxxx Module 3 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/module-2-exam_4.html xxxxx Module 2 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/modual-1-exam_47.html xxxxx Modual 1 Exam
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/ccent-final-practice-exam-3-51-question_91.html xxxxx CCENT Final Practice Exam 3 — 51 Question Set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/ccent-final-exam-3-51-question-set_9.html xxxxx CCENT Final Exam 3 — 51 question set
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/floating-static-route_26.html xxxxx Floating Static Route
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/ccna-and-ccent-practice-exam-questions_30.html xxxxx CCNA And CCENT Practice Exam Questions — 10 Questions On The OSI And\nTCP/IP Models
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/answers-for-interconnecting-cisco_94.html xxxxx Answers for Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices (ICND) Practice\nQuestions-Module 6
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/answers-for-iinterconnecting-cisco.html xxxxx Answers for IInterconnecting Cisco Networking Devices (ICND) Practice\nQuestions – Module 5
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/answers-for-iinterconnecting-cisco_46.html xxxxx Answers for IInterconnecting Cisco Networking Devices (ICND) Practice\nQuestions – Module 5
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/answers-for-interconnecting-cisco_37.html xxxxx Answers for Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices (ICND) Practice\nQuestions-Module 4
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/telnet-and-ssh-maintenance-commands_56.html xxxxx Telnet and SSH Maintenance Commands
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/l1-and-l2-troubleshooting_20.html xxxxx L1 and L2 Troubleshooting
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/cisco-discovery-protocol-cdp_20.html xxxxx Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/preventing-virus-attacks_20.html xxxxx Preventing Virus Attacks
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/antena-types_18.html xxxxx Antena types
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/spread-spectrum_18.html xxxxx Spread spectrum
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/physical-side-of-cisco-switches_23.html xxxxx Physical Side of Cisco Switches
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/physical-connections-and-passwords_31.html xxxxx Physical Connections and Passwords
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/basic-switch-security_35.html xxxxx Basic Switch Security
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/cisco-3-layered-model_15.html xxxxx Cisco's 3 Layered Model
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/forwarding-modes_14.html xxxxx Forwarding modes
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/the-data-transmission-process_14.html xxxxx The Data Transmission Process
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/the-tcpip-model_14.html xxxxx The TCP/IP Model
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/answers-for-interconnecting-cisco_19.html xxxxx Answers for Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices (ICND) Practice\nQuestions -Module 3
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/crosstalk_31.html xxxxx Crosstalk
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/answers-for-interconnecting-cisco_11.html xxxxx Answers for Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices (ICND) Practice\nQuestions – Module 2
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/what-is-ccna-voucher-ccna-exam-voucher_11.html xxxxx What is CCNA Voucher, CCNA Exam Voucher, CCNA Discount Voucher, or CCNA\nCertification Voucher
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/decimal-binary-binary-decimal_22.html xxxxx Decimal > Binary, Binary > Decimal
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/convert-binary-numbers-and-ip-addresses_92.html xxxxx Convert Binary Numbers and IP Addresses
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/subnetting-scenarios_10.html xxxxx Subnetting Scenarios
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/subnetting-basics_10.html xxxxx Subnetting Basics
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/static-routing-theory_9.html xxxxx Static Routing Theory
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/comparing-rip-versions-1-and-2_9.html xxxxx Comparing RIP Versions 1 and 2
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/intro-to-pix-asa-ids-and-ips_4.html xxxxx Intro to PIX, ASA, IDS, and IPS
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/the-attackers-arsenal_33.html xxxxx The Attacker’s Arsenal
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/viruses-worms-and-trojan-horses_9.html xxxxx Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/firewalls-and-proxy-servers_70.html xxxxx Firewalls and Proxy Servers
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/introduction-to-frame-relay_5.html xxxxx Introduction to Frame Relay
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/logging-synch-and-exec-timeout_45.html xxxxx “logging synch”, and “exec-timeout”
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/the-configuration-register_5.html xxxxx The Configuration Register
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/introduction-to-atm_5.html xxxxx Introduction to ATM
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/hdlc-and-ppp_4.html xxxxx HDLC and PPP
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/wan-interface-of-cisco-router-and-wan_4.html xxxxx WAN interface of Cisco Router and WAN cabling
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/modem-and-dsl-variations_3.html xxxxx Modem and DSL variations
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/08/physical-side-of-wans_30.html xxxxx Physical Side of WANs
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/managing-startup-files-and-ios-images_31.html xxxxx Managing Startup Files and IOS Images
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/setup-mode_31.html xxxxx Setup Mode
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/cisco-router-memory_31.html xxxxx Cisco Router Memory
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/startup-sequence_31.html xxxxx Startup Sequence
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/an-overview-of-wireless-security_30.html xxxxx An overview of Wireless Security
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ssids-and-mac-address-authentication_30.html xxxxx SSIDs and MAC Address Authentication
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/csmaca-vs-csmacd_30.html xxxxx CSMA/CA vs CSMA/CD
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ieee-80211-standards-comparison_30.html xxxxx IEEE 802.11 Standards Comparison
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/intro-to-wireless-lan_30.html xxxxx Intro to Wireless LAN
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/setting-switchrouter-banner_92.html xxxxx Setting Switch/Router Banner
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/intro-to-cisco-security-device-manager_24.html xxxxx Intro to Cisco Security Device Manager (SDM)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/intro-to-routing-process_53.html xxxxx Intro to the Routing Process
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/keystroke-shortcuts-and-manipulating_93.html xxxxx Keystroke Shortcuts and Manipulating History
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/basic-management-commands-for-switch_99.html xxxxx Basic Management Commands for The Switch
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/switch-virtual-lans_23.html xxxxx Switch Virtual LANs
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/switch-port-security-defaults-options_58.html xxxxx Switch Port Security Defaults, Options and Configurations
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/introduction-to-stp_71.html xxxxx Introduction to STP
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/repeaters-hubs-bridges-switches-and_6.html xxxxx Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches and Routers
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/bridges-and-switches-flood-filter-or.html xxxxx Bridges and Switches — Flood, Filter or Forward?
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ethernet-addressing.html xxxxx Ethernet Addressing
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ip-addressing.html xxxxx IP Addressing
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-pins-and-transmissions.html xxxxx ICND1 break down – Pins And Transmissions
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-operation-of-csmacd.html xxxxx ICND1 break down – Operation of CSMA/CD
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ethernet-standards.html xxxxx Ethernet Standards
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ethernet-standards_21.html xxxxx Ethernet Standards
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/arp-rarp-and-dhcp.html xxxxx ARP, RARP and DHCP
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-telnet-and-ssh.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Telnet and SSH
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-dns-basic.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — DNS Basic
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/debugging-internet-routing-problems.html xxxxx Debugging Internet Routing Problems with Traceroute
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/data-transmission.html xxxxx Data Transmission
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ports-sockets-port-numbers-and.html xxxxx Ports, Sockets, Port Numbers and Multiplexing
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/need-seniorlead-java-oracle-web.html xxxxx NEED – Senior/Lead Java, Oracle, Web Developer & Analyst
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/software-applications-developer.html xxxxx Software Applications Developer Position Available in Florham Park, NJ
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-broadcasts-unicasts.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Broadcasts, Unicasts, And Multicasts
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-pings-and-extended.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Pings and extended pings
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-osi-model-review.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — An OSI Model Review
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-switchrouter-passwords.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Switch/Router Passwords And Encryption
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-router-configuration.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Router Configuration Modes
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-configuration-modes.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Configuration Modes
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/icnd1-break-down-what-is-network.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — What is A Network
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/iphone-developer.html xxxxx Iphone Developer
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-6-router-as.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 6 – Router as DHCP Server
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-5-internet.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 5 – Internet Connections with NAT and PAT
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-4-ref3-ospf.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 4 – Ref3 – OSPF Routing Command
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-4-ref2-eigrp.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 4 – ref2 – EIGRP Routing Command
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-4-ref1-static.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 4 – ref1 – STATIC Routing Command
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-4-configuring.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 4 – Configuring STATIC ROUTING, RIP, EIGRP and\nOSPF
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/640-802-ccna-exam-topics-blueprint.html xxxxx 640-802 CCNA® Exam Topics (Blueprint)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/640-816-icnd2-exam-topic-blueprint.html xxxxx 640-816 ICND2 Exam Topic (Blueprint)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/looking-for-network-serives.html xxxxx Looking for Network Serives professionals
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/cisco-router-basic-commands-video.html xxxxx Cisco Router Basic Commands video tutoial – Configure Routing Protocal
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/cisco-router-basic-commands-video_8.html xxxxx Cisco Router Basic Commands video tutoial – Configure Serial interface
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/cisco-router-basic-commands-video_19.html xxxxx Cisco Router Basic Commands video tutoial – Configure FastEthernet\ninterface
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-3-cisco-router.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 3 – Cisco Router Basic Commands
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/package-tracer-video-tutorial-trouble.html xxxxx Package Tracer Video Tutorial – Trouble Shooting
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/packet-tracer-video-tutorial-connect.html xxxxx Packet Tracer video tutorial – Connect two Switches with a Router
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/packet-tracer-video-tutorial-getting.html xxxxx Packet Tracer video tutorial – Getting started
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/packet-tracer-video-tutorial-dhcp-setup.html xxxxx Packet Tracer video tutorial -DHCP setup
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-2-packet-tracer.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 2 – Packet Tracer Interface overview
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/ccna-lab-video-tutorial-1-ccna-virtue.html xxxxx CCNA Lab Video Tutorial 1 – CCNA virtue lab with Packet Tracer
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/cisco-iso-simulator-for-linux.html xxxxx Cisco ISO simulator for Linux
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/07/linux-router-vs-cisco-router.html xxxxx Linux router vs Cisco router
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd1-break-down-tcp-and-udp.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — TCP and UDP
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd1-break-down-network-topologies.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Network Topologies
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd1-break-down-ethernet-connectors.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Ethernet Connectors and Cable Types
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd1-break-down-cable-category-cat-1.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — Cable Category (cat 1, cat2, cat3, cat4, cat5, cat6)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd1-break-down-ip-address-classes.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — IP Address Classes
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd-practice-questions-module-1.html xxxxx ICND Practice Questions- Module 1
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/contact-me.html xxxxx Contact Me
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/contact-me_26.html xxxxx Contact Me
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/thank-you-for-message.html xxxxx Thank you for the message
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/mobile-application-web-developer.html xxxxx Mobile Application Web Developer
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd1-break-down-nat-pat.html xxxxx ICND1 break down — NAT & PAT
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/nat-pat.html xxxxx NAT & PAT
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/ccna-lab-how-to-setup-vpn-server-at-home.html xxxxx CCNA Lab: How to setup VPN Server at home
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/icnd1-and-icnd2-break-down.html xxxxx ICND1 and ICND2 break down
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/should-you-take-single-or-two-exam.html xxxxx Should You Take The Single or the Two Exam Approach To CCNA?
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/640-822-icnd1-exam-topics-blueprint.html xxxxx 640-822 ICND1 Exam Topics (Blueprint)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/java-developers-needed-in-charlotte.html xxxxx Java developers needed in Charlotte, NC….please refer ($) if you can\n- thanks!! (expired…)
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/top-it-certification-websites.html xxxxx Top IT certification websites
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/the-resources-for-it-test.html xxxxx The resources for IT test
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/what-test-to-take-make-plan.html xxxxx What Test to take? — Make Plan
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/friend-blogs.html xxxxx friend blogs
http://xyznetwork.blogspot.com/2009/06/hello-world.html xxxxx Hello world!Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )
You will have 180 minutes to complete 75 questions.
This exam features scoring that enables you to monitor your progress in near real time. After you have answered your fifteenth question, you will see the checkpoint score for the first 15 answers. This allows you to roughly monitor how you are progressing relative to the passing score of the exam. The checkpoint score will be updated at fifteen question intervals. For example: in this 75 question exam, an updated checkpoint score will be displayed after answering 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 questions respectively.
If you experience any technical problems during your exam that involve a loss of exam time, please notify your proctor immediately and mention that GIAC exams are Running Clock Exams. The exam clock does not stop when there is a technical issue, and lost time must be added back by GIAC Exam Support.
Answer each question to the best of your ability on the exam. We encourage you to provide feedback to improve the certification process. You will have the opportunity to mark 10 questions for review by the GIAC exam team. To mark a question for review, click the “Flag Previous” button at the top-right of the exam console AFTER you have answered the question. You will NOT be able to go back and answer these questions again.
Please flag any questions that you feel contain:
- Typographical errors (spacing, formatting, etc.)
- Spelling and grammatical errors
- Technical inaccuracies
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At the conclusion of your exam, you will have a chance to comment on the questions you marked individually. If you have specific comments or questions please provide as much information as possible.
GIAC does NOT award credit on commented exam questions, however, your comments will still be used to improve the exam.
You have the option to skip 5 questions during your exam. These questions will not be displayed again until you are close to the end of the exam. You also have the option to take 1, 15-minute break during the course of your exam. Please note, however, that any questions you skip during the exam, must be answered by clicking the “Answer Skipped” button BEFORE you take a break.
During your practice exam, you will be shown explanations by default on questions you answer incorrectly. You may optionally choose to see explanations for ALL questions you encounter on your exam, as well as disable showing explanations all-together by selecting the appropriate option at the top-right corner of the exam console.
For security reasons you will NOT be able to view the answer options for marked questions. Take any notes you require during your exam, because you will NOT be able to go back. You will have the opportunity to complete an exam evaluation at the conclusion of the exam. We welcome your comments.
For further information regarding the feedback procedure, please see the Exam Feedback Procedure page.
The questions used on this exam are considered confidential. You are NOT permitted to discuss or distribute them. Unauthorized disclosure or discussion of test questions is an ethics violation under GIAC and may result in financial liability.
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Your time starts once you press the ‘Start Exam’ button below.
I declare that I am in fact the individual registered and authorized to attempt the GIAC exam. I understand that the requirements for the GIAC exam must be completed in full by me and me alone.
I understand that GIAC exams are proprietary material owned by GIAC and The SANS Institute and subject to trade secret law. I understand that all exams and related information are made available to me strictly for the purpose of skills assessment. I agree that I will not divulge any GIAC exam or exams, in whole or in part, or information pertaining to them, in any form, or by any means, without the express permission of GIAC and/or The SANS Institute.
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Please enter your full name below to “sign” this page and to indicate that you agree with these rules.
I have read and agree to abide by the GIAC Code of Ethics.Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )
Tech blog http://kuliahku.com domain name is no longer exist, removes it from Blog roll, thanks for exchanging link with me, kuliahku!Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( None so far )
In this class, we will review the basic concepts learned in ICND1 – Lession 3 Switching.
- Switch is a Layer 2 network device, it forward frames based on the destination MAC address.
- MAC Address table: When switch receives frame from new source MAC address, it creates an entry in its MAC address table or content addressable memory (CAM) table. This entry is the receiving port and the source MAC address of the frame.
- Flooding: when switch forward a frame, it will check its CAM table for the destination MAC address. If there is an entry for the destination MAC, it forwards to that port, otherwise it forwards to all ports, except the port the frame was originally received from, this is called flooding.
- Switching Loops and Broadcast storm: in muti-linked networks, redundent links can form a loop, called switching loop. A frame with new source MAC address can tranverse a switching loop and gets repeatly broadcasted, which is called broadcast storm. To prevent broadcast storm, STP protocal is used.
There are 3 main switch transmission methods:
- Store-and-Forward: stores a receiving frame in memory and runs CRC check, and only forward frame if CRC passes.
- Cut-Trough: only looks at enough of the frame for destination and forward.
- Fragment-Free: checks the first 64 tytes of a frame before forwarding, because most of the collision happened in the first 64 bypes.
The following is the answer for ATul Singh about Ethernet Frame:
The smallest packet size is 64 bytes.
14 bytes (MAC Header) + 46 bytes (Data) + 4 bytes (CRC) = 64 bytes
The smallest packet size is defined in RFC document (RFC894), I don’t know why IEEE like the number 64. As far as I concern, physics sets a low bound for the packet size. let’s review what we have learned in operation of CSMA/CD :
“If two NICs simultaneously try transmit, then both could see no carrier signal in the medium, thus decide to transmit and a collision will occur. Collision Detection (CD) resolved this problem. When there is data waiting to be sent, each transmitting NIC will observe if a collision occurs (excess current i.e. >24mA for coaxial Ethernet). If collision is detected, it stops transmission and sends a 32-bit jam signal instead. The receiving NIC will discard the corrupted frame due to the jam signal.”
Remember, a packet is a electromagnetic wave. For small sized packet, the wave is narrower, for large sized packet, the wave is wider.
In the following pictures, the squres represent ethernet cable, the curves represent ethernet packets (or electromagnetic waves). Suppose the node at point A and node at point C send two packets simultaneously, the node at point B will receive a corrupted data.
picture 3 is the normal situation where the packet size is large or the eletromagnetic wave is wider. When the eletromagnetic waves overlap (or packets collide) at node B, they also overlap at Node A and Node C. Therefore, both node A and node C sensed excess current and terminated the packet transmission and sent jam signals instead. Node B receives jam, discarded the corrupted packet.
In picture 1 and 2, since the packet size is too small, problem arises.
As picture 1 shows, at time 0, node A send a packet towards node B and C, while node C sends a packet towards node B and A at the same time.
As picture 2 shows, at time t, the eletromagnetic waves overlap (or packets collide) at node B, but they are not overlap at Node A or Node C. As a result, neither node A nor node C sensed excessive current, so no jam signals sent. In another words, a collision is not discovered and node B happily accepted the corrupted data!
IEEE might do their research and calculation, and find out that 32 bit packets may be too small for large LANs, 64 bit packet is large enough for even the largest LANs, so they picked the number 64. Just my guess.Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( 1 so far )
Let’s talk a little bit about IOS commands for WAN trouble-shooting.
To verify the physcial cable connection on the routers, “show controller serial 1”, where serial 1 is the serial port the cable attached to.
R1#show controller serial 1
For the sake of trouble-shooting, we may want to use command “show interface serial1” to gain more information about the interfaces. Sometimes we find that the physical interface is up and the line procol down, generally there could be two reasons
We forget to set the clock rate on DCE. The line protocal will be down after 30 seconds, because the DTE need to receive the clock rate to work correctly. To set the clock rate on the DCE, use command “clock rate 56000” to set the clock rate to, for instance, 56 kbps.
The encapsulation type mismatch on both ends of the connection.
For example, if we physically connected router R1 and R2, but set different encapsulation type on them.
Then, we will see physical interface up and line prococal down by running command “show interface serial1” on both router R1 and R2. To resolve the problem, we issue command “encapsulation hdlc” on R1 or issue command “encapsulation ppp” on R2, so that the encapsulation type matches on both ends of the serial link.Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( 3 so far )
The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the world’s public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the network of the world’s public IP-based packet-switched networks. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital, and now includes mobile as well as fixed telephones. There are many advantages for PSTN as a communications link:
- Other than a modem, no additional equipment is required.
- The cost associated with the implementation of a PSTN connection link for a WAN is relatively low.
- The maintenance of a public telephone network is very high quality with few instances in which lines are not available.
Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad geographical area. On the contrary, Local Area Networks (LAN) are usually limited to a small physical area, like a home, office, building or campus. The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.
WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. Others, built by Internet Service Providers (ISP), provide connections from an organizations’s LAN to the internet. In order to provide connections over large geographical arears, WANs often use public networks, such as the telephone system, leased lines (ISDN), satellite, microwave, or other connection method.
Typical WANs use serial connections of various types to access bandwidth over large geographic areas.
So, who is managing the WANs today? The following organizations defined and managed the WAN access standards:
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
- Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
- Electronics Industry Alliance (EIA)
WAN access standards are primarily resides in OSI reference model Layer 1 and Layer 2. WAN access standards decribe physical layer and data link layer requirements such as physical addressing, flow control, and encapsulation. The following picture shows the popular WAN solutions today.
As shown above, at OSI model layer 1, WAN protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical, operational, and functional connections to the services of a communications service provider.
At OSI model layer 2,WAN protocols define encapsulation of data for transmission toward a remote location and the mechanisms for transferring the resulting frames. The WAN data link layer protocols include:
- Frame Relay (Link Access Procedure for Frame Relay [LAPF])
Serial connections support WAN services such as dedicated leased line, above which the PPP or Frame Relay runs.
Other WAN services, such as ISDN or dial-up modem, offer low cost dial-on-demand connection. An ISDN BRI is composed of two 64-kbps bearer channels (B channels) for data, and one 16-kbps data channel(D channel) for link-management purposes.
DSL and cable modem connections dominates today’s residential broadband service market. A typical residential DSL service can offer up to 1.5 Mbps connection speed over the existing telephone line. Cable services can offer higher speed connection over the existing coaxial cable TV line.Read Full Post | Make a Comment ( 3 so far )
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